is a persistent organochlorine insecticide. It kills insects when ingested
and on contact. Formulations include dusts, emulsifiable concentrates,
granules, oil solutions, and wettable powders.
And this is what it looks like
The oral LD50 for chlordane
in rats is 200 to 700 mg/kg, in mice is 145 to 430 mg/kg, in rabbits
is 20 to 300 mg/kg, and in hamsters is 1720 mg/kg. The dermal LD50 in
rabbits is 780 mg/kg, and in rats is 530 to 690 mg/kg. The 4-hour inhalation
LD50 in cats is 100 mg/L.
Chlordane is moderately
to highly toxic through all routes of exposure. Symptoms usually start
within 45 minutes to several hours after exposure to a toxic dose. Convulsions
may be the first sign of poisoning, or they may be preceded by nausea,
vomiting, and gut pain. Initially, poisoning victims may appear agitated
or excited, but later they may become depressed, uncoordinated, tired,
or confused. Other symptoms reported in cases of chlordane poisoning
include headaches, dizziness, vision problems, irritability, and weakness
or muscle twitching. In severe cases, respiratory failure and death
may occur. Complete recovery from a toxic exposure to chlordane is possible
if proper medical treatment is administered. Chlordane is very irritating
to the skin and eyes. Chlordane affects liver function, so many interactions
between medicines and this pesticide may occur. Among these are decreased
effectiveness of anticoagulants, phenylbutazone, chlorpromazine, steroids,
birth control pills, and diphenhydramine. Increased activity of thyroid
hormone may also occur.
In human beings chlordane is absorbed into the body
through the lungs, stomach, and skin. It is stored in fatty tissues
as well as in the kidneys, muscles, liver, and brain. Chlordane has
been found in human fat samples at concentrations of 0.03 to 0.4 mg/kg
in U.S. residents. Chlorinated hydrocarbons stored in fatty tissues
can become released into circulation if these fatty tissues are metabolized,
as in starvation or intense activity. Chlordane that is not stored in
the body is excreted through the urine and feces. Chlordane has been
found in human breast milk. Rats that breathed chlordane vapor for 30
minutes retained 77% of the total amount inhaled. Rabbits that received
4 doses of chlordane stored it in fatty tissues, the brain, kidneys,
liver, and muscles. Excretion of orally administered chlordane is slow
and can take days to weeks. The biological half-life of chlordane in
the blood serum of a 4-year-old child who drank an emulsifiable concentrate
of chlordane was 88 days. In another accidental poisoning of a 20-month-old
child, the half-life was 21 days.
on birds: Chlordane is moderately to slightly
toxic to birds. The 8-day dietary LC50 for chlordane is 858 ppm in mallard
ducks and 430 ppm in pheasant.
on aquatic organisms:
Chlordane is very highly toxic to fresh water invertebrates
and fish. The LC50 (96-hour) for chlordane in bluegill is 0.057 to 0.075
mg/L and 0.042 to 0.090 mg/L in rainbow trout. Chlordane bioaccumulates
in bacteria and in marine and freshwater fish species. Expected bioaccumulation
factors for chlordane are in excess of 3000 times background water concentrations
indicating that bioconcentration is significant for this compound.
on other organisms: Chlordane is highly toxic
to bees and earthworms. Studies done in the late 1970s showed that the
fatty tissues of land and water wildlife contained large amounts of
cyclodiene insecticides, including chlordane.
in soil and groundwater: Chlordane is highly
persistent in soils with a half-life of about 4 years. Several studies
have found chlordane residues in excess of 10% of the initially applied
amount 10 years or more after application. Sunlight may break down a
small amount of the chlordane exposed to light. Evaporation is the major
route of removal from soils. Chlordane does not chemically degrade and
is not subject to biodegradation in soils. Despite its persistence,
chlordane has a low potential for groundwater contamination because
it is both insoluble in water and rapidly binds to soil particles making
it highly immobile within the soil. Chlordane molecules usually remain
adsorbed to clay particles or to soil organic matter in the top soil
layers and slowly volatilize into the atmosphere. However, very low
levels of chlordane (0.01 to 0.001 ug/L) have been detected in both
ground and surface waters in areas where chlordane was heavily used.
Sandy soils allow the passage of chlordane to groundwater.
in water: Chlordane does not degrade rapidly
in water. It can exit aquatic systems by adsorbing to sediments or by
volatilization. The volatilization half-life for chlordane in lakes
and ponds is estimated to be less than 10 days. Chlordane has been detected
in surface water, groundwater, suspended solids, sediments, bottom detritus,
drinking water, sewage sludge, and urban run-off, but not in rain water.
Concentrations detected in surface water have been very low, while those
found in suspended solids and sediments are always higher (<0.03
to 580 ug/L). The presence of chlordane in drinking water has almost
always been associated with an accident rather than with normal use.
in vegetation: No data are currently available.
Technical chlordane is actually a mixture of at least 23 different
components, including chlordane isomers, other chlorinated hydrocarbons,
and by-products. It is a viscous, colorless or amber-colored liquid
with a chlorine-like odor.
- Chemical Name:
- CAS Number:
- Molecular Weight: 409.83.
- Water Solubility:
0.1 mg/L @ 25°C.
- Solubility in Other Solvents:
s. in most organic solvents, including petroleum oils.
- Melting Point:
- Vapor Pressure: 1.3
mPa @ 25°C.
- Partition Coefficient:
- Adsorption Coefficient:
Oregon University and The World Health Organisation
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