is a carbamate and is the one we are going to cover here,
there are approximately 45 different carbamates put into various groups
such as oximes, phenyls etc.. and would take ages to cover each one
in depth. Because one of the most used products is Ficam® and of
course it contains bendiocarbamate, this is why I am covering it. It
is effective against a wide range of nuisance and disease vector insects.
It is used to control mosquitoes, flies, wasps, ants, fleas, cockroaches,
silverfish, ticks, and other pests in homes, industrial plants, and
food storage sites. In agriculture, it is used against a variety of
insects, especially those in the soil. Bendiocarb is also used as a
seed treatment on sugar beets and maize and against snails and slugs.
Pesticides containing bendiocarb are formulated as dusts, granules,
ultra-low volume sprays, and as wettable powders.
Bendiocarbamate is an anticholinesterase
if you click on the link it will take you to an involved explanation
of the subject, and consequently needs to be treated with respect. In
the early days it used to be supplied as a loose powder in a 15 gram
sachet, which was added to water, as a result of which a certain amount
of powder floated in the air and was easily breathed in. Nowadays, the
sachet is the same but now contains another sachet, which you don't
open, when the inner sachet is immersed in water it dissolves leaving
the powder in the water and not floating in the air....good eh..!
The oral LD50 for bendiocarb is 34 to 156 mg/kg in rats, 35 to 40 mg/kg
in rabbits, and 35 mg/kg in guinea pigs. The dermal LD50 is 566 mg/kg
in rats. The acute inhalation LC50 (4-hour) is 0.55 mg/L air in rats.
Bendiocarb is moderately toxic if it is ingested or if it is absorbed
through the skin. Absorption through the skin is the most likely route
of exposure. It is a mild irritant to the skin and eyes. Like other
carbamate insecticides, bendiocarb is a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase,
an essential nervous system enzyme. Symptoms of bendiocarb poisoning
include weakness, blurred vision, headache, nausea, abdominal cramps,
chest discomfort, constriction of pupils, sweating, muscle tremors,
and decreased pulse. If there is severe poisoning, symptoms of twitching,
giddiness, confusion, muscle incoordination, slurred speech, low blood
pressure, heart irregularities, and loss of reflexes may also be experienced.
Death can result from discontinued breathing, paralysis of muscles of
the respiratory system, intense constriction of the openings of the
lung, or all three. In one case of exposure while applying bendiocarb,
the victim experienced symptoms of severe headache, vomiting and excessive
salivation, and his cholinesterase level was depressed by 63%. He recovered
from these symptoms in less than 3 hours with no medical treatment and
his cholinesterase level returned to normal within 24 hours. In another
case, poisoning occurred when an applicator who was not wearing protective
equipment attempted to clean contaminated equipment. The victim experienced
nausea, vomiting, incoordination, pain in his arms, hands and legs,
muscle spasms, and breathing difficulty. These symptoms abated within
2 hours after decontamination and treatment with atropine sulphate.
The victim fully recovered by the following day.
In Human Beings bendiocarb is absorbed
through all the normal routes of exposure, but dermal absorption is
especially rapid. Carbamates generally are excreted rapidly and do not
accumulate in mammalian tissue. If exposure does not continue, cholinesterase
inhibition and its symptoms reverse rapidly. In nonfatal cases, the
illness generally lasts less than 24 hours. Within two days after feeding
doses of up to 10 mg/kg of bendiocarb to rats, 89 to 90% of the dose
was eliminated in the urine, 2 to 6% was exhaled, and another 2 to 6%
was eliminated in the feces. This same pattern of elimination was observed
in a human subject given an oral dose of bendiocarb.
When spraying for ants with something
like Ficam® pest controllers should be aware that domestic cats
are very susceptible to Bendiocarbamate and the clent should be questioned
about any pets on the premises.
on birds: Bendiocarb is moderately toxic to
birds. The LD50 in mallard ducks is 3.1 mg/kg, and in quail is 19 mg/kg.
on aquatic organisms: Bendiocarb is moderately
to highly toxic to fish. The LC50 (96-hour) for bendiocarb in rainbow
trout is 1.55 mg/L.
on other organisms: Earthworm populations under
turf are severely affected by bendiocarb. It is toxic to bees. The LD50
is 0.0001 mg per bee.
Breakdown in soil and
groundwater: The half-life of
bendiocarb varies with soil type from less than 1 week to up to 4 weeks.
It has a low soil persistence.
Breakdown in water:
Bendiocarb is degraded in solution by the chemical action
of water (hydrolysis). It does not accumulate in water.
Breakdown in vegetation:
Bendiocarb is not toxic to plants when used as directed.
Bendiocarb is an odorless, white crystalline solid. It is stable under
normal temperatures and pressures, but should not be mixed with alkaline
preparations. Thermal decomposition products may include toxic oxides
of nitrogen. It is noncorrosive.
- Chemical Name:
- CAS Number:
- Molecular Weight:
- Water Solubility:
40 mg/L @ 20°C.
- Solubility in Other Solvents:
acetone v.s.; benzene s.; chloroform s.; dioxane v.s.; ethanol s.;
- Melting Point: 129-130°C.
- Vapor Pressure:
0.66 mPa @ 25°C.
- Partition Coefficient:
- Adsorption Coefficient:
- Oregon Universtity.
- World Health Organisation
- USA Environmental Protection Agency.
Back to main