Red Squill is a scilliroside
and is a rodenticide in the glycoside family of chemicals. It is a botanical
compound extracted from the bulb of the Mediterranean squill plant (Urginea
maritima) see below. Scilliroside is a bright yellow crystalline
solid. It is hydroscopic and non-corrosive. Scilliroside is sensitive to
heat and should be used at temperatures below 80°C. Its shelf life is
one to five years if it is protected from strong light and low pH conditions.
Use discontinued in the U.K.
Most effective against Norway rats, it was also used to
control black rats, house mice, long-tailed field mice, and field voles.It
was classified as Toxicity Class I- highly toxic. Products containing scilliroside
bore the Signal Word "Caution". It was available as a ready- to-use bait
or as granules. Scilliroside production was discontinued worldwide in 1980,
but in some ways it was a good rodenticide as it wasn't effective with other
mammals. Red squill is specific for rats and nontoxic to other warm-blooded
animals when used in recommended dosages. The specific toxicity to rats
is due to their inability to vomit while the product induces vomiting in
other animal species.
Chemical Name: 3B,
Chemical Formula: C32H44O12
Chemical Structure: Information
Scilliroside is a highly toxic chemical. The dose at which half of the test
animals die, the oral LD50, is 0.43 mg/kg for female rats, 0.7 mg/kg for
male rats, and 0.35 mg/kg for mice. Pigs and cats survived doses of 16 mg/kg.
Scilliroside is irritating to the skin.
Scilliroside affects heart muscle contractions. It is also
a potent emetic in most mammals, causing them to vomit and avoid absorbing
the toxin. It is specifically toxic to continuous feeders like rats because
of their inability to vomit. Rats are relatively resistant to the cardiac
actions of scilliroside. Instead, they show protracted convulsions and muscular
weakness at doses of 1.5-2.0 mg/kg intraveneously. Cardiac glycosides, like
scilliroside, may also cause nausea, vomiting, headache, abdominal pain,
confusion or convulsions.
Fate in Humans and
Animals: Cardiac glycosides, such as scilliroside,
are metabolized by the liver, excreted into the intestine and then absorbed
into the blood. Intestinal flora may also play a role in metabolism, causing
large variations in fate among exposed individuals. It may also be eliminated,
unmetabolized by the kidney. The half-life in the body is from five to six