Whilst only naming Cholecalciferol, otherwise known as Vitamin
D3, as the title for this page, also used is ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2).
Both are of a similar nature, in fact there are about ten compounds which
are in the vitamin D group ( back to Cholecalciferol). These rodenticides
act by causing vitamin D toxicosis, raising serum calcium levels to dangerously
high levels. Clinical signs arise within 18 to 36 hours after ingestion,
and include depression, anorexia, increased urination and increased water
intake. Muscles are affected by high calcium, and the animal becomes very
weak. Heart conduction becomes slowed, and ventricular fibrillation and
cardiac arrest may result. Type of formulationsof rodenticide: granular
Other sources of Vitamin D are:
- Vitamin D containg multi vitamins.
- Food grade or dietry sources of Vitamin D.
- Plants with Calcinogenic properties.
- Sunlight on the skin leads to
of activated vitamin D.
Chemical Name: Cholecalciferol;
Other Names: Calciol;
oleovitamin d3; CC; duphafral d3 1000; delsterol; Deparal; ebivit; neo dohyfral
d3; provitina; ricketon; trivitan; d3-vicotrat; vi-de-3-hydrosol; vigantol;
vigorsan; 5,7-cholestadien-3betal-ol; 7-dehydrocholesterol; (3beta, 5Z,
7E)-9,10-secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-trien-3-ol; Dehydrocholesterol; Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-trien-3-ol,
(3beta,5Z,7E)-; Cholealciferol; Colecalciferol; Vitamin D3, crystalline.
Chemical Formula: C27H44O
Currently available toxicology studies on
Vitamin D3 are as follows:
Oral LD50 in rats: 352 mg/kg and 42 mg/kg for males, and 619 mg/kg for females.
Dermal LD50 in rabbits: 2000 mg/kg.
Primary dermal irritation: not required because technical is a solid resin.
Primary eye irritation: not required because technical is a solid resin.
Inhalation LC50: not required because technical is a solid resin.
Acute, 60-day, delayed toxicity study in rats: Acute dose, equal to accidental
exposure. produced no elevated serum calcium levels and no abnormal long
bone growth in young rats.
Teratology in rats: not required because technical is a solid resin and
Vitamin D3 is a dietary supplement in the adult female diet.
Adequate studies are available to assess the acute toxicological effects
of Vitamin D3.
No toxicological hazards of concern have been identified in the studies
reviewed for this new pesticide.
Based on studies available to assess hazards to wildlife
and aquatic organisms, Vitamin D3 is characterized as being of low toxicity
to birds, because the chemical is virtually insoluble in water. Results
of currently available studies are as follows: - avian oral LD50: >2000
mg/kg (mallard duck) - avian dietary LC50: 4000 ppm (mallard duck), 2000
ppm (bobwhite quail) - fish LC50: not required because technical is virtually
insoluble in water - aquatic invertebrate LC50: not required because technical
is virtually insoluble in water.
The most common clinical
signs associated with cholecalciferol intoxication depend on the body system
that is affected.
Clinical signs appear within 12- 36 hours after ingestion and include:
As the disease progresses
additional clinical signs may include hypertension, polyuria, and polydipsia.
- abdominal pain
- muscle weakness
Elevated serum calcium
may cause cardiac arrythmias. Calcification of cardiac and renal tissues
may lead to organ failure. The clinical signs are not specific for cholecalciferol
intoxication, but may be seen with other causes elevated serum calcium.
the serum calcium concentrations by: increasing GI absorption of phosphorus
and calcium, increasing osteoclastic resorption, and increasing distal renal
tubular reabsorption of calcium.
- Normally, epidermal
cells that are exposed to sunlight will produce cholecalciferol which
is then bound to a serum vitamin D binding protein and transported to
- In the liver, cholecalciferol
is metabolized to 25-hydroxycholecalciferol which is the major form of
vitamin D in the circulation.
- The vitamin D metabolite
is transported to the kidney where 25-hydroxycholecalciferol is converted
to 1,25-dihydroxycholcalciferol which is the most potent metabolite.
- This metabolite
is transported to multiple organs and binds to nuclear receptors and causes
a biologic response (calcium absorption or resorption, increased bone
- An example would
be in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidneys, 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol
upregulates parathyroid hormone receptor expression and increases calcium
resorption. While the inactive form (25 hydroxy-cholecalciferol) has no
effect on parathyroid receptor expression.
to main Rodenticide Page
to main PiedPiper Page