(1080) is a water soluble salt of very high mammalian toxicity
which is used mainly as a rodenticide. It is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal
tract but is not readily absorbed through the intact skin. Usually marketed
as an aqueous solution containing 0.5% nigrosine as a black warning colour,
which is used to prepare baits. In the United Kingdom it is formulated as
a 5% solid concentrate and a 0.375% bait for dilution with water to 0.25%.
Sale and use are under strict control. Throughout the world it has been
used to control rats, mice, squirrels, prairie dogs, coyotes, rabbits, it
has also been used to control wallabies and rooks. Has been used experimentally
as an insecticide, herbicide and repellant, but is no longer used for these
It is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract,
the oral route being the most important in cases of poisoning. Dust formulations
are easily absorbed by inhalation. But it is not readily absorbed through
the intact skin but it may be absorbed in the presence of cuts or dermatitis.
It works by blocking the Krebs cycle by the formation of fluorocitric acid
which inhibits aconitase and results in the accumulation of citric acid.
The fluorocitric acid is itself very highly toxic, and therefore sodium
fluoroacetate can cause secondary poisoning, i.e., poisoning in an organism
which has consumed a part of an organism already poisoned. The Krebs cycle
is the way every cell in the body respires.
Chemical Name: Sodium
fluoroacetate or Sodium monofluoroacetate
Chemical formula: C2H2FNaO2
Toxicity, single dose: Oral:
LD50 rat, 0.22 mg/kg Dermal: not known Inhalation:
not known Most susceptible species: rodents
are the most susceptible species.
Toxicity, repeated doses: Oral:
no information Dermal: no information. Sodium
fluoroacetate. is not absorbed to any significant extent through the intact
skin. Inhalation: no information Cumulation
of compound: cumulation of sodium fluoroacetate occurs
to some extent and some tolerance can be demonstrated in the mouse and rat
and possibly in the rhesus monkey. Cumulation of effect:
THERE IS NO ANTIDOTE
JUST THE TREATMENT
OF THE SYMPTOMS
Symptoms and signs: there
is a variable latent period ranging from 30 minutes to two hours between
ingestion and appearance of symptoms. The first indication of poisoning
is nausea and mental apprehension with facial twitching and numbness, generally
followed by epileptiform convulsions. After a period of several hours pulsus
alternans may exist followed by ventricular fibrillation and death. Children
appear to be more subject to cardiac arrest than to ventricular fibrillation.
(by a doctor): treatment for sodium fluoroacetate
poisoning is mainly symptomatic. If ingested, vomiting should be induced
immediately followed by gastric lavage with two to four litres of tap water
and instillation of 15-30 g of saline cathartic. Monoacetin (glyceryl monoacetate)
0.5 mg/kg should be injected IM every half hour for 12 hours varying the
injection sites. Artificial respiration with the assistance of oxygen may
be required. Calcium gluconate, 2-3 g per day in 10% solution may be given
IV. To control convulsions barbiturates (preferably phenobarbitone or pentobarbitone)
should be given IM or IV in sufficient dosage.
if the patient survives the first 24 hours after ingestion of sodium fluoroacetate
the chances of complete recovery are favourable.
The use of sodium fluoroacetate should be restricted
to sewers, ships and other structures where the operator can completely
control the rodenticide and the environment. It has been used, for example,
in feed mills during weekends, where the treated premises were locked, patrolled,
and all bait stations accounted for. Excess poison bait, bait containers
and rat carcasses should be disposed of by incineration or deep burial.
Generally speaking 1080 is not used in this country now except with a special
using this substance should observe the strictest of safety procedures and
ensure that the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is used.
Great care is required when
handling bait and contaminated equipment. The greatest hazard to technicians
is when handling the concentrated mixture. During a days work, a technicians
clothes could absorb many fatal doses. It is therefore necessary to wear
non-absorbent outer clothing, made of plastic or waterproof material and
in good condition. In warm weather waterproof clothing can be uncomfortable,
but it is essential when handling 1080 solution. For all operations associated
with the poisoning of bait, gauntlet-length rubber or plastic gloves must
also be worn. Cleaning the hands before eating and drinking is also essential
after 1080 or 1080-impregnated baits have been handled. Washing facilities
must be provided for this eventuality, if the water is in buckets etc, then
the water should be changed frequently.
The poison can be ingested through accidental
contamination of food, smoking or it being mistaken for something else.
In its stock solution (200g/litre of water) or when it is broken down with
water (field working solution), it still only takes a small amount to poison
a human being.
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